This week’s podcast is about 5G and 5.5G (also called 5G-Advanced). This is a short-list of scenarios where they are going to have a big impact.
Here is the link to the TechMoat Consulting.
Here is the link to the China Tech Tour.
Here are the 5 scenarios:
- Glasses Free 3D
- Self-Guided Vehicles
- Next Gen Manufacturing
- Cellular IoT
- Intelligent Computing Everywhere
Here is the 2D to 3D video.
Here is the 3D video.
- AutoGPT and Other Tech I Am Super Excited About (Tech Strategy – Podcast 162)
- The Winners and Losers in ChatGPT (Tech Strategy – Daily Article)
- Why ChatGPT and Generative AI Are a Mortal Threat to Disney, Netflix and Most Hollywood Studios (Tech Strategy – Podcast 150)
From the Concept Library, concepts for this article are:
- 5G and 5.5G
From the Company Library, companies for this article are:
Welcome, welcome everybody. My name is Jeff Towson and this is the Tech Strategy Podcast from Tecmo Consulting, where we analyze the best digital businesses of the US, China and Asia. And the topic for today, Five Ways 5G is a game changer for business. And really this is 5G plus 5.5G, which is kind of rolling out right now. And 5.5G is… It’s also called 5G Advanced now or 5G A. I mean, it’s kind of the next upgrade. It’s a pretty big upgrade from 5G. And it’s a bit of a stepping stone, which you build on top of the 5G network. So it’s kind of an upgrade for the 5G network. sort of a stepping stone to 6G, which is out there on the horizon quite a few years. Anyway, so I was at the mobile broadband conference in Dubai, a lot of fun, really interesting stuff. I’m sort of digging into this and trying to figure out what’s coming next and what matters for business as opposed to, you know, what the broadband carriers, the mobile carriers should be building right now. Yeah, it’s a big deal. 5G is really… it didn’t get the big splash of 4G because when 4G came out suddenly everyone had YouTube on their phones. It hit pretty big. You know, 5G is slower. It’s much more about business digital transformation, which takes longer. I think it’s a much bigger deal. I think there’s at least four to five things that are just total game changers that are slowly coming systematically. Anyways, that’s what I’m gonna talk about, sort of the five things I thought were important. I did do a podcast last week from Dubai. I don’t feel real great about it. I think my thinking was fuzzy. I think it was kind of half-baked. I also think I was jet-lagged. So I’ve been kind of feeling bad about that all week. I’m like, that was really not awesome to be blunt. So we’re going to try and do a lot better this week. So anyways, five ways 5G is a game changer for business. That’s the topic. And I’m going to burn through them pretty quick on this one. And let’s see. Any? I don’t think I really have any housekeeping stuff. Standard disclaimer, nothing in this podcast or in my writing or websites investment advice, the numbers and information for me and any guests may be incorrect. The views and opinions expressed may longer be relevant or accurate. Overall, investing is risky. This is not investment, legal or tax advice. Do your own research. And with that, let’s just get into the topic. Now I have been starting something in these podcasts, which I’m calling sort of 30 seconds on tech events. Anything that’s happened in the last week, I think is particularly important. And there’s been a couple. So I got basically three on my list. Number one, ARM IPO. Big deal. I mean Arm is just a giant, incredibly important tech company. It’s gone public. You can pull the numbers. I’m going through them. Very interesting. And then the whole relationship with Arm in China. is a big deal. You know there’s been a joint venture they did in China to sort of bring their architecture there. There was some management disputes. Management was, I don’t know, going a bit rogue in China. And now there’s a new company created in China by what looks like a big portion of the management of Arm China. So keep an eye on that. That’s a big deal. But the IPOs happen. You TikTok has been somewhat blocked. TikTok Shop has been pretty much blocked in Indonesia. There was a regulatory ruling law passed something that basically in Indonesia you have to separate commerce from videos and social and all of that. Which, I mean, that really is stupid. I mean, there’s no way around it, it’s stupid. There is a tremendous convergence between entertainment, viewership, video, and commerce. Really three things are converging, entertainment, commerce, and social. I mean, it’s all becoming one integrated user experience. Indonesia has decided those must be separate. What looks like a protective measure for Tokopedia and GoTo and basically their local players because TikTok Shop has been kind of rocking and rolling. So, you know, I put this in a long list of regulatory actions that are really stupid. It’s this funny problem I have because I’m kind of a libertarian and well I’m pretty serious libertarian actually. And these tech companies are becoming more powerful that I am sort of leaning towards, look, you need some sort of regulatory action. And then every time I see a regulatory action, it’s so dopey. I’m like, well, that’s not good. I’m a little bit torn there. Anyways, third issue, third event, which is in the same bucket, is the EU has passed a fairly sweeping censorship law. which basically gives politicians, most of whom are unelected EU bureaucrats, the ability to censor. Now, they will say it’s misinformation. I see it as censorship of anything that is a dissent from whatever their narrative is. And they’re going after Twitter pretty good this week. So anyway, so the three events I thought were pretty important. The ARM one I think is key. The other two I put into kind of the stupid category. Let me know if you think I’m wrong. I mean, I appreciate it. Those are just sort of opinions. But yeah, if I’m off pace, let me know. I’d appreciate it. Okay, with that, let’s get into the content. Now, 5G, very important. We’re about four years into this from initial deployment. It has been faster than 4G. There’s about a billion users on 5G now. It took about four years to get there. 4G took about seven years. You got about 260 carrier projects around the world with 5G. Big deal, the leaders have been sort of South Korea, China, Thailand. Thailand, a big leader in 5G. Pretty cool. Europe, somewhat, US, yes, some Middle Eastern players, Zain in Saudi Arabia, Atisalat and Dew in UAE moving pretty quick, Hong Kong, some cool stuff. Anyways, I’m gonna talk about, for those of you who are subscribers, I’m gonna send out some articles on case studies, because this is gonna be high level today, but I’m gonna talk about specific case studies of what’s happening in South Korea, Hong Kong, Saudi, and Dubai. really cool stuff. I mean super like it’ll blow your mind what they’re doing with 5g. Well it blew my mind. So anyways okay so 5g what is the benefit of 5g what can it do the long version is five things data downlink uplink latency reliability data tremendous bandwidth tremendous speeds Downlink speed, very powerful. Uplink speed, people don’t talk about uplink as much. Usually when people talk about 5G, they talk about low latency. There’s no delays and they talk about speed. They don’t talk about uplink. One of the big differences for 5G versus 4G is the amount of uplink speed is huge. That lets you do things like… autonomous vehicles where you have to have tremendous data moving back and forth between a vehicle and the network. It lets you do things like live streaming, immersive gaming, where the uplink speed is a big deal. 5G is a lot about the uplink speed. And then reliability is a big part of it. People talk about latency, like if you’re gonna have autonomous vehicles zipping around the streets, you can’t have a lag. Or if you’re gonna have drones flying in the air, you can’t have latency. The other issue is just reliability. You can’t have the network go down at all. So those sort of factors, data, downlink, uplink, latency, reliability, those are the big five. The simpler version of that Which I heard someone say at the conference. I forget who said it Basically consumers love 5g businesses need 5g That’s a pretty good summary I’ll give you some examples It turns out Consumers are using 5g for video and not just video. They’re using it for short video Which I think was kind of a surprise. I don’t really think the carriers were expecting some big jump in short video usage based on 5G, but that’s really what’s happened. High definition short video has really bumped, and so carriers like that because mobile carriers, they have a couple things they look for when they do these upgrades. One is they look for greater traffic and usage. They look for monetization opportunities. They look for greater user signups. various metrics one of the traffic metrics was short video. Kind of surprising but on the consumers love 5g entertainment video definitely short video which is download live streaming which is upload plus download gaming which is upload plus download basically anything that is much more interactive in real time. Consumers like it. It’s really kind of surprising. You need the low latency. You need the high the rapid uplink if you’re going to do interactive gaming and I’ll give you some examples of Glasses free 3D viewing, gaming, XR. I’ll give you a couple, that’s one of my five for today. But yeah, it turns out consumers are into it. On the businesses needed, consumers love it, business is needed. 5G is really the key to digital transformation for a lot of industries. You can do a certain degree of digital transformation of a business if you’re a bank, fine. You can, you know, you’ve got your ERP systems and all of that, you can digitize. But if you’re a factory, if you’re a transportation network, if you’re a retail environment, you can’t really do digital transformation until you start doing 5G. Lots of sensors everywhere, low latency. You got to basically put sensors everywhere and then you’ve got to get super fast connectivity so that you can start to connect the intelligence of the cloud with the real world. So In practice, what does that mean? 5G’s been rolling out in places like Italy. They will tell you what’s your main thing you’re doing. Well, we’re building private networks. That’s really what they’re doing in practice is these big carriers offer 5G and businesses start to build private 5G networks that cover their operations. That’s kind of step one. And then they start to put sensors everywhere. That’s kind of what’s happening in practice. And they need it. To do a full digital transformation, you absolutely need that kind of speed. Okay, so that’s kind of a simple summary for 5G. 5G has been one gigabyte download, 100 megabyte upload, the latency you’re talking 20, 30, 40 milliseconds, things like that. Okay, then you get to 5.5G or 5G Advanced. You basically get a 10X increase in speed. So instead of one gigabyte download you get 10 gigabyte download instead of a hundred megabyte upload you get one gigabyte upload. So it’s a big step up and the other thing you get is you get remote sensing which 5g doesn’t do. If you put sensors on stuff the 5.5g base stations can ping and basically get inbound signal as well as outbound signal from sensors. So you can do lots and lots of remote sensing. So if you’re going to put cameras all over the parks and the parking lots and sensors on all the cars, 5.5G gets you much better sensing, which is kind of a big deal. OK, now let’s get into the five. All right. There’s a couple good talks I heard. One of them I thought was particularly good was by basically the president of the carrier group at Huawei. And these are his five scenarios, more or less. It’s not his, but this is the five that we’re talked about. I think it’s a pretty solid list. I think I pretty much agree with it, so I’m just gonna sort of say that. Here’s the five, and I’ll put these in the show notes. Glasses-free 3D. It’s pretty cool. I’ll give you some examples. not just cars, not just trucks, everything moving on a road or a factory or a parking lot, self-guided vehicles. Next generation manufacturing, that’s a good way to think about it. Cellular IoT, which is basically ubiquitous internet of things everywhere. And then intelligent computing, basically everywhere. So those are the five, I’ll go through them. I’ll put the list in the show notes. Okay, scenario one, glasses free 3D. I don’t know if anyone really saw this one coming. It’s really cool. It’s basically if you get super fast connectivity, 5G, and you combine that with generative AI in the cloud, which is kind of the big thing this year, you can start to render three dimensional video in real time. So for example, You take out any typical smartphone, you do a live stream. Hi, I’m Jeff, I’m selling cosmetics today. The 5G upload speed is key, but it’s uploading a two dimensional video that goes into the cloud. The cloud does real time computer generated AI, basically turns the 2D video into 3D video. downloads it to anybody’s laptop, anybody’s smartphone, anybody’s tablet, and depending on what type of tablet or smartphone you have, you can basically watch on your laptop a 3D version of me doing my live stream. Now, the hardware is a bit of a bottleneck here. If you wanna do it on your smartphone, pretty much any smartphone can do it. You have to just put a little film on top of your screen and you can basically watch the video in 3D. It’s not 100% 3D, it’s sort of like 70 degrees. And you have to look at the screen from a certain angle and… The AI basically tracks where your eyes are pointing, and so it adjusts it in real time. So it’s not 100% 3D. It’s pretty good. the tablets and the laptops work much better. So there’s, you can buy these in China right now. They’re not that expensive. You take a typical laptop, you buy a 3D capable laptop. It’s about $100 more. Acer sells them and you sit in front of the laptop and the live stream of me selling my cosmetics comes up in about 70 degree 3D. It’s pretty good. But all of this depends on 5G, more or less, because you need the rapid upload, you need the low latency, you need some pretty powerful AI in the cloud, you need a tremendous amount of data to do AI, and then you need the download speed, and you need the camera to be tracking your eye movements in real time so it can show you the 3D in a way that works. Pretty cool, I’ve been playing with it. subscribers I’ll put a link into some videos where you can see this you can see the laptops you can see the tablets it’s hard to show the 3d in a video but I think you get a sense of it fine kind of cool The one that really got me for glasses 3, and obviously the benefit is you don’t have to wear glasses. You can just use your eyes and it’s fine. The one that really got me was full 3D. Now this one you need a separate device. You need basically what looks like a terminal and it creates a hologram in the terminal. That looks like, it’s perfect 3D. It looks like a hologram on your desk. And it’s really fantastic. Now for this, you need, you basically need to record in 3D. You can’t record in 2D. run it up to the cloud, render it with AI, and then beam it back. Now it’s gotta be full 3D data recorded, so you need different cameras. It goes up to the cloud, it comes down to the terminal. It’s spectacular. I’m buying one of these as soon as they’re available. You put it on your desk, it looks like the size of a laptop, plus about 30 to 40%. You gotta put some little walls on the side of it. It’s absolutely fantastic and you get I think 180 maybe 360 degree 3G. So if you’re looking at a car on the terminal you can tilt your head to the left and the right and see the sides of the car. And you can spin it around. It’s absolutely fantastic. I’ll put a video in the show notes for it if you want to take a peek. But basically… 3D 8K video with basically 8K at 90 frames per second, if you’re curious about it. Yeah, it’s amazing, but to do that, when you look at the bandwidth required, you basically need five to 10 gigabits per second to do this. Well, you can’t do that with 5G, you need 5.5. But it’s pretty awesome. Anyways, and that tees up. really what’s coming next, which is fully immersive, two-way interactive video, which is 3D, which can be XR where you’re virtual reality, but you can have augmented reality overlaid and you can sort of go between, basically Iron Man, right? You put on the helmet, you can see everything like a real world and then it overlays various aspects to it. That’s what’s coming and it looks like it’s going to happen this year. Pretty cool. So that’s scenario number one. Glasses free 3D. I’m totally convinced. It’s awesome. All right. Scenario number two. Self-guided vehicles. You know this has kind of been one of the big use cases for 5G from the beginning. You get the low latency which you need if you’re going to have things flying through the air and being controlled. You need a tremendous amount of data. autonomous driving, autonomous vehicles, there’s a huge amount of data that’s required to do this. That means you need, you know, basically 5G, 5.5G to do it, and you need tremendous reliability. You can’t have this thing go down as it’s zipping down the road at, you know, 60 miles per hour. Certain cases I’ll talk about in South Korea, this will go out to subscribers probably Monday. When you look at various carriers around the world, Hong Kong, South Korea, Germany, Turkey, whatever, South Korea, as far as I can tell, the use case they are betting on is connected vehicles. When they roll out their 5G networks, what is your highest priority use case? It looks like they’re all in on connected vehicles as the most important use case. So the vehicles become intelligent. And basically that requires vehicle to cloud communication and collaboration in real time. That’s how you get self-driving cars. That’s how you get self-driving taxis. That’s how you get self-driving buses, delivery vehicles, pretty much everything, buses. That tees up the idea of instead of vehicle to cloud communication and collaboration, you get vehicle to vehicle communication. All the vehicles are talking to each other, that takes care of your accidents. Then you start getting vehicle to road collaboration. So all the vehicles are communicating with the traffic lights, with all the cameras, and pretty quickly this whole story becomes one of smart cities. where everything in the transportation network is talking to each other. And so that gets you pretty much an Asia story. Because when you start looking at smart cities, you know, 50% of everything in smart cities in China, South Korea, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, that’s where a lot of the action is happening. Yijuang, which is the district of Beijing in the southeast. That’s where JD is located and some others. That’s kind of one of the test beds for all of this. So they’ve got self-driving delivery vehicles all over the Yijuang district. The numbers I’ve read is these self-driving vehicles in this district are basically delivering 30,000 parcels per day. So we can see this rolling out in various districts. It’s pretty important. So yeah, it’s more than just self-driving cars. It’s really smart urban environments, but the bandwidth requirements are pretty unbelievable. So yeah, you gotta do 5G and above. Alright, scenario number three. Next generation manufacturing. This is really where I focus most of my time, because I’m usually talking with companies. And the other stuff’s cool, but most companies aren’t making cars, and most companies aren’t doing 3D video. Although they’ll start to do that in their sort of marketing soon. But no, most companies are doing digital transformation. and they have physical operations whether it’s factories, shopping malls, retail stores, whatever that is and the key to not just digital transformation but AI transformation. The key to that, a lot of it is 5G, 5.5G, and usually you begin by building a private network within the company. It could be virtual, it could be either. So you put the 5G in as opposed to running everything through Wi-Fi networks. Suddenly you start and then you put sensors everywhere. You start to gather tremendous data. They can be cameras, they can be heat sensors, they can be x-rays, they can be maintenance sensors, everything. All the data starts coming in, it all goes up into the cloud. You start to get more and more data analytics running on this. The data analytics are getting smarter and smarter. Suddenly you’ve got a virtual twin, a digital twin of your facility. Suddenly management has got tremendous information. So, you know, step number one is connectivity. Step number two is everything becomes smart. Step number three is you start to make things more and more automated. That’s kind of your standard digital and AI transformation story, but you need a private network usually to do that. Okay. But then it gets more interesting. And there’s a next step that people don’t talk about as much. If you’re talking about manufacturing, so we’re talking about next gen manufacturing as a scenario, production starts to become flexible. Once it’s smart, connected, and increasingly automated, certain steps, you can start to be flexible as a manufacturing base, as a production base. So your typical auto factory, You know, they might have 10 to 20 production lines making various types of cars, and they will have to adjust those production lines throughout the year for different types of cars. That typically can take weeks, but once everything becomes smart and data-driven, suddenly you can start to readjust your production line in days. Well, one… That makes you much more efficient. Your downtime is less. That’s good. But also it starts to make you much more responsive to the market and what customers want. Now, auto is fairly major when you realign the production lines. But if you’re talking about apparel, Suddenly, you know, you’re making 20 different types of shirts on one production line every day and the system is just bouncing back and forth between Whatever type of shirt you want to make, you know, this is Jack Ma’s new manufacturing It used to be you would go for efficiencies of scale economies of scale You build one production line that can make 10,000 of the same type of shirt every year. I’m sorry every day Well, now you’re talking about economies of scope, not economies of scale. You want a production line that can make 10,000 different types of shirts every day. That basically puts you more in touch with demand. And suddenly all of this is not so much about saving money, which it is, it’s about increasing revenue. That’s a different strategy. So as production becomes flexible, you start to interact in real time with demand and you start to drive revenue. That’s pretty cool. This is where Alibaba has been putting their chips in terms of new manufacturing in China. That’s pretty interesting. I’ve actually seen models that are even further than this where the production facility, the factory, is no longer a fixed production line with certain things that move. The whole facility is modules that move around on the ground and self-assemble into different types of production lines. And you can watch, you know, it’s almost like little uh tables and components that are on the factory floor that all move around and assemble themselves like Tetris pieces into different configurations and they can make entirely different things. So you’re starting to see production that can, you know, self-assemble, which would be the next version of this. Anyways, when you talk about scenario number three, next-gen manufacturing, that’s really where it’s going. And I think the companies that get their are gonna stun everybody. And we can see this in China and we can see this in Asia today because it turns out most of the stuff in the world is made in China and Asia already. So anyways it’s a big Asia story. That’s number three. Alright let’s move on to four and five and these are much shorter we’re basically in the home stretch here. Number four cellular ubiquitous IoT. You put sensors everywhere in everything, in the cars, in the roads, in the traffic lights, in the factories, pretty much everywhere. And when we talk about putting the consumer side to 5G, the short version of that for me is video everywhere. That there’s gonna be videos in every mall and in every office, there’s just gonna be screens everywhere. But keep in mind, these screens are gonna be two directional. So they’re gonna be pushing video out, but they’re gonna be interactive. So when you walk by a screen in the mall, it’ll say, hi, Jeff, how are you doing? So that’s basically a sensor as well. So that’s all IoT. That’s obviously a big part of the one I just talked about, next gen manufacturing. Now the problem with this, and this has been coming out of China, is okay, that’s expensive. These sensors are not cheap. If you put passive IoT, passive IoT are basically like, they’re almost like stickers. Like if you have a delivery vehicle going around the Yizhuang area. you basically put the little sticker on every package and then you put all the packages in the vehicle. Well, as soon as that vehicle gets within a sensor, all of the packages, it pings all their little passive IoT sensors and you know exactly what’s in the vehicle. And when someone takes something out of the vehicle, you know that package is no longer. So you can update the inventory in real time with these little passive IoT. They really look like stickers. That’s fine, but for most of what I’m talking about… You know, you need, if you’re gonna do machine vision, if you’re gonna do video uplating, if you’re gonna do monitoring of campus, if you’re gonna do control of an industrial facility, if you’re gonna do smart wearables, in-car entertainment. Okay, these are not little IoT sensors. These are fairly expensive. They cost a lot if you’re gonna put thousands of them. You need sort of high-speed 5G. That’s a problem and One of the things that’s been rolling out this year in China is basically what they call reduced capability sensors red cap and that’s a lot for Basically small and medium enterprises who can’t afford all of these sensors. So these are basically cheaper and They do things like you know, this is the camera you can put in your parking lot and it will you know? do data collection, it will do video uploading, but it doesn’t require a lot of power. It’s pretty cheap. So what you really end up needing when you talk about IoT is you need sort of a spectrum of IoT sensors that go basically from passive IoT. You know, that you’d put on food and you’d put on bananas and you’d put on a smart home and you’d put in a warehouse or on clothing and things like that. You need sort of low speed IOT. You might put that in street lamps. You might put that in smoke sensors. You might put it in public infrastructure. You need medium and high speed red cap. That’s video real time uploading. That’s machine vision. And then you need high speed 5G. So you need basically a spectrum of IoT capabilities. Red cap, five to $10 per chip set. Sort of cheaper ones, 50 cents. passive IoT, I think they’re down to 10 cents or something like that. So you gotta kinda have a spectrum of this to make it work. But we’re pretty close to where you’re gonna have ubiquitous cellular-based IoT pretty much everywhere. And we can see the spectrum of sensors that are now being rolled out. RedCap was rolled out in China this year to support 5G. It’s going to go international. I think it’s literally launched this week that it’s now going outside of China. That’ll be Asia first, probably some middle Eastern markets, a couple of other places. Okay. So that’s scenario number four, ubiquitous cellular IoT. Last scenario, intelligent computing everywhere. Um, this is not really a separate point, but basically when people asked about AI, five years ago. I remember Kai-Fu Lee, the AI guru of China, you know, he described AI as it’s going to be intelligence everywhere and you’re going to plug into it as a person, as a business, as a home, as a car, pretty much the same way you plug into electricity. We don’t think about electricity. It’s just everywhere. It’s in the walls. you know, it’s everywhere we need it. That’s going to be intelligence. And he described two ways you will plug into intelligence. One, you can plug into it like a network grid, like the power grid. We just plug into our walls and electricity’s there. Or you can think about batteries. For certain specialized things, you put batteries in devices. Well, that’s also electricity. He kinda said it’s gonna be the same for intelligence. There will be network grids of intelligence we plug into, just like the power grid, and then there will be batteries of specialized intelligence. We will plug into certain things. These networks, these carrier networks and to a lesser degree the broadband networks, that’s the power grid analogy. There’s just going to be intelligence in everything. These networks that we’re used to dealing with 3G, 4G, and now 5G. The idea was that would connect you to the cloud, and that’s where the intelligence, but more and more it’s better just to think about 5G as a network that is natively intelligent in itself, the same way your power grid in your house is just natively providing electricity to you. That’s kind of how I think the way to think about it is ubiquitous natively intelligent grids that we’re just going to plug into for intelligence all the time. And it looks like sort of 5G, 5.5. It’s pretty much there. To make this happen in reality, you basically need 10 gigabyte download, 1 gigabyte upload, IoT connections across the full. spectrum which I just talked about and you need sort of AI native intelligence. Well that’s pretty much what 5.5G is. It looks like it’s there. So anyways that’s kind of what I’ve been thinking about. Now if you’re a carrier that’s a problem because you’ve got to build all this and mobile carriers kind of a tough business. You’re always building and you’re looking for ways to get consumers to pay more, customers to pay more, which they typically don’t want to do. The good sort of natively intelligent, ubiquitous networks, you can start to be in the services business, which is what a lot of them are doing, and you can provide. you know, mobility services for cars, you can provide XR services and, you know, advanced interactive entertainment services for customers, consumers, and they do apparently pay more. So it’s kind of good news, bad news. Anyways, that is pretty much it for content. Let me, the five again are, where’s my list? Five scenarios are basically glasses-free 3D, self-guided vehicles, next generation manufacturing, ubiquitous cellular IoT, and intelligent computing everywhere. I think that’s a pretty good list. This is not my list. It’s just sort of the notes I took. And I think that is the content for today. Hopefully that was better than last week. I think it was. I feel like it was much better than last week. It’s kind of messed up, but I do. Like I’m one of those people, if I do something I regret, it stays with me forever, like for years. I can think of stuff I said 10 years ago that I regret saying maybe I was angry, maybe I was not behaving well. It sticks with me forever. Like I never seem to be able to let it go. So, you know, if I don’t do well, like if I think the podcast is just mediocre, I literally think about it all week. It’s really not a good characteristic, but it is what it is. Yeah, so it’s been in the back of my brain all week. So anyways, I feel better now. Anyways, that is it for the content for today. No real concepts for today, just sort of 5G and 5.5G. 6G, I don’t know, 2030, we probably got quite a while before that rolls out. We’re in the sort of maturing phase of 5G right now. So anyways, that is it for the content for today. As for me, it’s been pretty… Pretty busy week, which I always, always feel better when I’m busy. Just sort of running around. I’m heading into Vietnam next week, next week. For those of you who, there’s a trip. I’m accompanying a trip into Vietnam. I’m sure quite a few listening are going as well. So I’ll see you in Vietnam next week. Gonna visit some tech companies. This is not my tour, I’m attending this one. That’s gonna be great, I’m looking forward to that. Vietnam’s a lot of fun. It’s a bit crazier. But it’s a pretty fantastic market to look at. So that’ll be next week. So I guess I’ll probably do the podcast from there. Yeah, and then I think Hong Kong the week after that, and then back to the US. So it’s gonna be busy, which I always feel good about. Anyways, that is it for me. I hope this was helpful, and I will talk to you next week. Bye bye.
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